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Multiple Choice

  1. The majority of the adaptations which occur as a result of exercise training may be described as:

  1.  Overtraining is an indication that the individual is not physiologically adapting to the stress of exercise training, probably because of:

  1. The volume of air that remains in the lungs after a maximal expiration?
  1. Pulmonary air flow depends on:
  1. Alveolar ventilation is:
  1. H2O + CO2  -------- H2CO3 -------- H+ + HCO3-
  1. What does not reduce the effectiveness of Hb to hold oxygen?
  1. Regulatory factors for ventilation include:
  1. Each 100 ml of blood carries about how much oxygen?
  1. The average A-V O2 difference between arterial blood and venous blood at rest is about:
  1. Hemoglobin transportation of O2 changes very little until the PO2 falls below:
  1. What percentage of the total C02 is carried as bicarbonate?
  1. The small amount of O2 dissolved in plasma:
  1. The interaction between oxygen loading and carbon dioxide release is termed:
  1. Place the following in sequence for normal ECG conduction?
    1. Purkinje Fibers
    2. S-A node
    3. Bundle branches
    4. Anterior internodal pathway
    5. A-V node
    6. Bundle of HIS
  1. Stroke volume:
  1. As the ventricles contract:
  1. Place the following in sequence for a normal cardiac cycle beginning with atrial systole?
    1. Atrial systole
    2. Isovolumetric relation period
    3. Ventricular ejection period
    4. Atrial and ventricular diastole and filing
    5. Isovolumetric contraction period
  1. The _______ is considered the "pacemaker’ of the heart.
  1. When describing the cardiovascular system, which of the following is TRUE?
  1. Which of the following is TRUE about the Autonomic Nervous System concerning the heart?
 Define the following:
  1. Exercise modality –
  2. Retrogression--
  3. Intrathoracic pressure --
  4. Minute Ventilation --
  5. Tidal volume --
  6. Hemoglobin --
  7. Ambient air --
  8. LVESV –
  9. a-vO2diff –
  10. ICP –
  11. VEP –

Short Answers:

  1. What are the four factors that affect training.



  1.  List and describe the principles of training.



  1. Differentiate between sports specific and health related training.



  1. How do you determine the partial pressure of a gas (give the formula)?



  1. How do increases in acidity and temperature change hemoglobin saturation?



  1. List two ways oxygen is transported in the blood.



Essay/Graphs/Long answers:

  1. You are competing in the "Hotter N Hell" Ironman triathalon. The temperature is a blistering 109 degrees, and you are working at 80% of your max VO2. Describe to me what is occurring with your pulmonary system (including PO2 and PCO2 values) and the oxygen transport system (including Hb saturation) during the 25 mile run in the heat.





  1. Determine the Minute ventilation of a 120 lb. female with a tidal volume of 1800 ml and breathing 2400 breaths per hour at an altitude of 3300 ft. and barometric pressure of 696 mm Hg?


  1. In reference to a normal ECG, describe the phases of the cardiac cycle, including VFP, ICP, VEP, IRP, aortic pressures, stroke volume, LVEDV and LVESV.